Augustus (27 BCE–14 CE) 1 Product




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Augustus (27 BCE–14 CE)

Augustus, Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus, also known as Octavian, was the founder of the Roman Empire; he reigned as the first Roman emperor from 27 BCE until his death in 14 CE.

Gaius Octavius was born into an old and wealthy family. His maternal great-uncle, Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC. Octavius was named in Caesar's will as his adopted son and heir and as a result, he inherited Caesar's name, estate, and the loyalty of his legions.

The reign of Augustus initiated an era associated with imperial peace, the Pax Romana, the golden age of Rome. During this period, the Roman world was largely free of armed conflict aside from expansionary wars and the Year of the Four Emperors. The Principate system of imperial rule established by Augustus lasted until the Crisis of the Third Century.

He, Mark Antony, and Marcus Lepidus formed the Second Triumvirate to defeat the assassins of Caesar. Following their victory at the Battle of Philippi (42 BC), the Triumvirate divided the Roman Republic among themselves and ruled as de facto dictators. The Triumvirate was eventually torn apart by the competing ambitions of its members; Lepidus was exiled in 36 BC, and Antony was defeated by Octavian at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC. Antony and his wife Cleopatra, the Ptolemaic queen of Egypt, killed themselves during Octavian's invasion of Egypt, which then became a Roman province.

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